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Welcome to the website of the Centro Gramsci of San Marino

The Gramsci centre for the humanities/Centro di studi gramsciani is a research centre founded in 2020.

The double header – Gramsci centre for the humanities / Centro di studi gramsciani – is not only a very free presentation of the same content in two languages. It also refers to a dual function. On the one hand, the scientific observation of Gramsci’s work, his legacy, his method; on the other hand, research on some of Gramsci’s themes – organization of cultural work; intellectuals; politics and culture… – in their current implications: in new terms. Continue reading “Welcome to the website of the Centro Gramsci of San Marino”

The fragile boat of the magazine “tradurre” (2011-2021) Interview with Gianfranco Petrillo

With an editorial in its December issue, the magazine ‘tradurre’ announced its closure. We interviewed the former editor in chief Gianfranco Petrillo to better understand how this decision came about. Continue reading “The fragile boat of the magazine “tradurre” (2011-2021) Interview with Gianfranco Petrillo”

Making the future of reading: a bookshop in transformation, 6

In this sixth episode of our inquiry into the book market, we present the experience of an independent bookshop in Rome, interviewing Daniela Girfatti, children’s bookseller and publisher. Continue reading “Making the future of reading: a bookshop in transformation, 6”

From Italy to the world: some comparative insights on reading and bookstores, 5

In this fifth episode of the book market survey, we will offer some elements for a comparative investigation of the Italian book market, in relation to what happens beyond our borders. Continue reading “From Italy to the world: some comparative insights on reading and bookstores, 5”

Independent booksellers in Italy: relaunch proposals and long-term trends, 4

In this fourth episode of our survey on the book market, we will try to present the opinions of some independent booksellers, from the North to the South of the peninsula.

In order to investigate the issues that have emerged from the reports and surveys we have referred to in previous issues, we have decided to ask a few questions to a select group of independent booksellers, from the North to the South of Italy. To this end, we formulated a sufficiently broad questionnaire, covering both current issues and long-term dynamics. Although the response rate did not allow for a complete numerical processing of the data, we decided to present the answers we received anyway, in order to suggest some possible lines of research.

Regarding the changes that have occurred in recent years, the booksellers consulted basically agree in identifying the success of the Internet (and, consequently, of e-commerce) as the main novelty, which has upset the commercial dynamics, without, however, distorting the cultural role of the bookstore. Fabio Masi, publisher and bookseller of L’ultima spiaggia (Ventotene), gives a symptomatic answer: “No substantial changes, bookshops continue to play the role of a garrison, a square, a place of spontaneous aggregation or determined by particular events such as book presentations. The only novelty is represented by the Internet and the possibility of enlarging “the square” and multiplying the ways and places where booksellers and readers can meet”.

Some, like Cristina Pavone (Libreria Coreander in Rome) and Alessandra Salvagno (Libreria editrice Il Leggio in Chioggia), perceived a change in the number of users, who are now mainly women and children. This does not affect the feeling that the independent bookstore remains a community reference point, as confirmed by many. Nicoletta Maldini (Libreria Trame in Bologna) describes her “public”, and not a clientele, as “very motivated and not too interested in discounts, but rather in the quality and variety of the content offered”. This is confirmed by the testimony of Maria Caldarone (Libreria Belgravia in Turin), who also tells of initiatives implemented to strengthen this role: “We are increasingly becoming a crossroads, a small neighborhood community. We have included corners for free book exchanges inside and outside the store and a service for collecting used school books that are donated: the economic crisis has no longer allowed entire segments of the population to buy the books they want, so we have gone towards the needs of those who could not afford to buy them”.

The attitude of independent booksellers to keep together the cultural and commercial nature of their activity is well exemplified by the way they choose the titles to display and keep in their catalog. These take into account, according to all of the professionals interviewed, both the saleability and the market trends, as well as the “customers’ requests for more in-depth information” and the “human experience” of the individual bookseller, as Caldarone (Belgravia) points out. To this must be added, according to Masi (L’ultima spiaggia), an attention to the “valorization of the history and nature of the territory where the bookstore operates”, and to the “need to create a new generation of readers”.

With regard to the role played in the social context by independent bookstores, all the witnesses agreed in identifying this aspect as one of the most vital. Carlo Borgogno (Libreria Milton in Alba) describes the bookshops as a “space for social exchange, a place for gathering, sharing and letting off steam”. He emphasized, among other things, how in recent years he has been able to observe an increase in “requests for aggregation, sociality, moments of entertainment”, and therefore in the energy needed to satisfy them, and he hoped for coordination “at a central level in the individual municipalities” in order to strengthen the response. Among the activities that, along with book presentations, are identified as central to fulfilling this role are reading circles. In this regard, Pavone (Coreander) affirms: “With a destroyed social structure, the difficulty in creating human relationships, the reading circle is a mechanism that works, if it is well thought out”. The case of Masi (L’ultima spiaggia) is particular, who has “accompanied the work of the bookshop with that of the publisher, who prints only and exclusively books regarding the territory, with the aim of contributing to the safeguarding and valorization of memory”.

Maldini (Trame) points out that the pandemic emergency also played a role in the reconsideration of the value of bookstores: “At the Italian level, the active reaction to the pandemic, with home deliveries in particular, has given breath and an excellent narrative to a suffering category”. According to Maldini, this has enabled many companies to hold their own.

With regard to the consequences triggered by the pandemic, all the booksellers interviewed recalled that they took action in various ways, in particular through home deliveries and membership of distribution platforms such as Bookdealer and Libri da asporto (Takeaway Books). This has allowed them to gain recognition in terms of visibility. Even Masi (L’ultima spiaggia) agrees in saying that he has observed “a new and greater attention to proximity bookstores on the part of readers”, as well as “a different willingness on the part of the main market players to support the work of booksellers, as some distributors have done, with the possibility of delivering the requested book directly to the reader’s home”.

However, Caldarone (Belgravia) points out that, in his own experience, “during the pandemic, customers bought more books, but often only from authors known to the general public, while small publishing houses and emerging authors did not find much space”. More systemic is the criticism advanced by Pavone (Coreander), who, while noting that delivery has certainly been increased by the pandemic context, points out the risk that this could create “a cultural desert in society”. Among other things, she reiterated how, beyond the contingencies, the structural problem of the book world in Italy is a lack of readers: “A thousand realities are fighting over a few million readers”.

Among the most negative consequences of the emergency, the drastic reduction of book presentations in presence is recalled by almost all the booksellers reached. This situation, which online events could only partially remedy, and which, as Borgogno (Milton) points out, is anything but over: “Even today, although we have resumed book presentations, it is not possible for us, given the reduced space of our store, to safely host events, as we did in the pre-pandemic era. This is perceived as an economic damage, but also, according to Salvagno (Il Leggio), as an impoverishment of the “human contact with the client”.

Some interesting responses also came in regarding the structural difficulties of the book trade and possible solutions. As we will see in the sixth issue of our in-depth analysis, returns are still one of the main problems, but this is part of a more general distribution problem. Borgogno’s (Milton) position is radical: “Distribution eats up most of the profit that booksellers and publishers should share, without providing a service with added value to either party. […] Platforms like Librostore, which put publishers and booksellers in direct contact, are the future”. But the problems related to distribution are not limited to costs and discounts; as Caldarone (Belgravia) points out, there is also a problem of timing and difficulty in finding texts. In this regard, Pavone (Coreander) also identifies the possibility of “offering the completeness of the editorial offer” as the “new frontier” facing booksellers, highlighting in particular the difficulty of finding texts in foreign languages, for which there is a lack of direct distributors, mainly independent bookstores.

March 2020 saw the entry into force of the new National Action Plan for the promotion of reading (Law no. 15 of February 13, 2020) which, among other things, incorporated the requests regarding the reduction of the maximum applicable discount, now set at 5%, updating the Levi Law (Law no. 128 of July 27, 2011). Asked about possible further initiatives to be undertaken, the booksellers presented various perspectives, mostly in a structural rather than emergency sense. Caldarone (Belgravia) identified the cover price of books as the main problem, also considering the average economic condition of Italian families. On this topic, the recent intervention by Oliviero Pesce is interesting, as an afterword to the publication of the article by J. M. Keynes, I libri costano troppo? (Laterza, Rome-Bari 2018).

Pavone (Coreander) put forward the idea of a stable and direct support to the neighborhood activities consolidated on the territory; always on a territorial discourse proposes to work Borgogno (Milton), who invokes a greater attention from the municipalities to “make available for free spaces open to the citizenship where you can meet authors, artists, musicians, this especially for those bookstores, cultural associations and the like that do not have suitable spaces (also in light of the reduction of post-pandemic capacities).” The possibility of building a cultural network that involves the various protagonists emerges several times in the answers to the questionnaire. As Maldini (Trame) points out: “The whole chain should work through synergies. Schools, libraries, museums, theaters, cinemas… consumers of culture are greedy and open to everything”.

Finally, Masi’s proposal (L’ultima spiaggia) is very articulate: “Personally, I think that the 18app should be rethought. Starting from the assumption that it is difficult to become a reader at the age of majority as if by magic, I imagine support for reading that begins in the first years of life, six years for example, and that accompanies the reader up to eighteen with a gradually decreasing book bonus”. Also linked to this is the idea of launching, on the model of the French ADELC – Association pour le développement de la librairie de création, “an Italian association that has the same objectives”, which could, among other things, play the role of “guarantor” in the sense of a “greater willingness on the part of publishers and/or distributors to support the new bookstores, especially in terms of margins”.

Bookstores in Italy, commercial establishments and cultural strongholds, 2

In this second issue of the survey on the book market, we will try to explore the map of bookstores businesses in Italy; as for the in-depth study on the situation of reading, we decided to limit the analysis to data on 2019. The numerous reports and insights produced on the pandemic period will be the specific object of the next issue. Continue reading “Bookstores in Italy, commercial establishments and cultural strongholds, 2”

The Book Market in Italy, 1

Starting from Gramsci’s distinction between “ideological” and “economic” readers (Quaderni, 14, 62), we began a survey of the book market in Italy. To this end, we collected and selected quantitative data already available (Italian and, in part, also foreign, in order to propose an initial comparison). Alongside this activity, the Gramsci center for the humanities has also undertaken some initial investigations oriented towards a qualitative approach, addressing questionnaires and interviews to some qualified representatives of the sector.

The preliminary results of this work will be published in six issues on our website, in order to make available the data collected and offer a first partial mapping of the current situation, which could hopefully form the basis for future research and discussion.

The presentation and the collection of materials were edited by Andreas Iacarella.

Links six issues:

1, The book market in Italy;

2, Bookstores in Italy, commercial establishments and cultural strongholds;

3, The impact of the pandemic on the book market;

4, Independent booksellers in Italy: relaunch proposals and long-term trends;

5, From Italy to the world: some comparative insights on reading and bookstores;

6, Making the future of reading: a bookshop in transformation.

The first issue presents the situation of book production and reading in Italy, which appeared to us to be preliminary to delving into issues related to the book market.

Every year, ISTAT publishes the results of its survey on the production and reading of books in Italy. In January 2021, the report for 2019 was published, which also contains an update for the first period of 2020, in view of the specificity of the situation triggered by the Covid-19 pandemic.

The report shows that book production related to 2019 stood at an average of 237 books per day, thus almost 1.3 books per thousand inhabitants; of which 58.4% were new releases and 8.5% were new editions. In 2019, there were 1,706 companies or institutions that carried out publishing as their main activity; of these, 53% are considered “micro-publishers” (no more than 5,000 copies), 38.1% small publishers (maximum print run 100,000 copies), 6.8% medium publishers (print run no more than one million copies), 2.1% large publishers (print run more than one million copies). 59.1% of production in terms of titles (and 91.3% of circulation) was carried out by medium and large-scale publishers.

In terms of geographical distribution of companies, the North is in the lead, with 50.0% of publishers (31.3% in the Northwest and 18.8% in the Northeast), while the Center and the South stand at 28.7% and 21.2% respectively (14.7% in the South and 6.5% in the Islands). The regions with the highest number of publishers are Lombardy (20.6%) and Lazio (16.8%). The titles published by the publishers surveyed in 2019 correspond to 86,475, for a total of over 192 million copies printed [data on circulation could be profitably compared with ISTAT historical series on the subject]. In the face of this significant production, the quota of unsold copies remains considerable, but with a notable difference with respect to the type of publisher. The percentage of declared stock and returns is 26% for micro-publishers, 17.6% for small publishers, 6.9% for medium and 5.8% for large publishers.

The average cost of books was 19.84 euros in 2019; with about half of production (50.1%) consisting of works priced no more than 15 euros, and 28.7% of volumes priced between 10 and 15 euros. In terms of marketing channels, Italian online stores rank first (59.9%), just above independent bookshops (59.3%). Large and medium-sized publishers confirmed their preference for chain bookshops (82.9% for large and 70.7% medium-sized publishers, out of a total of 36.0%), whilst direct sales remained one of the channels preferred by micro-publishers (55.6%).

On the specifics of commercial and market aspects, it is useful to cross-reference Istat data with those offered by the Report on the State of Publishing in Italy 2020, edited by the Ufficio Studi dell’AIE – Associazione Italiana Editori. 2019 marked a return to pre-crisis economic levels, with a turnover of 3,036.6 million (up 3% on 2018, broken down as follows: 1,527.8 million for miscellaneous books, 769 for scholastic, 379 for digital and 360.8 for other), which confirms the book as the first cultural industry in Italy, alongside Pay TV. According to the AIE, sales channels see an increase in online stores (27%, compared to 24% in 2018), as well as in the export of publishing rights of Italian authors to publishers in other countries (+9% on 2018).

In terms of the readership aspect, the Istat report shows that 40.0% of the population aged 6 and older read at least one book during the year, 44.3% from 1 to 3 books, 15.6% from 12 books and up. 77.2% of readers remain tied exclusively to paper books, while 7.9% read only e-books or online books. In this regard, it should be noted that 45.3% of works published in print in 2019 were also made available in ebook version.

In 2019, the share of readers is highest among young people: 54.1% between 15 and 17 years old and 56.6% between 11 and 14 years old. The gender gap, which has been evident since 1988, also persisted, with the percentage of female readers standing at 44.3% and that of male readers at 35.5%. In absolute terms, the most affectionate readers are girls between the ages of 11 and 19 (at least one book a year for over 60% of the sample).

The influence of education and territorial location is confirmed on reading affection. There are 71.9% of readers among university graduates, compared to 46.1% among high school graduates and 25.9% among those with an elementary school diploma. As far as geographical distribution is concerned, 47.6% of residents in the Northwest and 48.1% of those in the Northeast have read at least one book. The average share of readers drops in the South (27.9%), while it is differentiated among the islands (25.9% in Sicily; 38.9% in Sardinia, which, however, drops by 5.8 percentage points compared to 2018). Also significant is the type of municipality, in part linked to the presence of businesses and libraries: in the central municipalities of the metropolitan area, around half of residents declare themselves readers (48.2%), a percentage that drops to 36.0% for municipalities with fewer than 2 thousand inhabitants.

Family background is also a determining factor: under the age of 18, 77.4% of children of parents who are readers and only 35.4% of children of non-readers are readers.

For complete data, see the full text of the ISTAT report and the collection of statistical tables used to compile it.

A critical school on digital data

Equipping all those who have the basic knowledge provided by the compulsory school with critical tools for the interpretation of reality represented by digital data. This is the aim pursued by the Scuola pop sui dati digitali, an internal project of the Scuola Critica del Digitale, organized and promoted by the Centro per la Riforma dello Stato (Crs). Continue reading “A critical school on digital data”

Reading the entire Commedia in seven days: material culture in Dante’s middle ages

One reads in many different ways, as is well known: a multiplicity of styles, of situations, of degrees of attention, ranging from absolute concentration to non-reading. But the idea of reading Dante’s entire Commedia in one week is nonetheless impressive, especially for those who have read it, well or badly, a little at a time, in the three long years of high school.  Continue reading “Reading the entire Commedia in seven days: material culture in Dante’s middle ages”

Can organic intellectuals help to better communicate controversial scientific findings to the public opinion? A hint from geo-engineering

Giorgio S. Taverna,  Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Johannes Gütenberg Universität, Mainz, Germany. 

Given that technology is omnipresent present in our lives, it is normal for the average person to get interested in scientific concepts and theories. These are initially generated in universities, research centres and high-tech industries and gradually make their way into public opinion. This information stream is not working well and scientific findings sometimes get to the public opinion distorted, simplified, or even corrupted.

Continue reading “Can organic intellectuals help to better communicate controversial scientific findings to the public opinion? A hint from geo-engineering”